[i] CIA World Factbook 2006. Quoted in Blue, Sarah A. “The Erosion of Racial Equality in the Context of Cuba’s Dual Economy.” Latin American Politics and Society, Vo. 49, No. 3 (Fall 2007).
[ii] CIA World Factbook. “Cuba.” https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cu.html
[iii] José Martí. “Nuestra América.” 1891
[iv] Sweig, Julia. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press, 2009. P. 34.
[v] Comment at the CIP Conference “Questions of Racial Identity, Racism and Anti-Racist Policies in Cuba Today.” Washington D.C., June 2, 2011
[vi] Adams, Henley C. “Fighting an Uphill Battle: Race, Politics, Power, and Institutionalization in Cuba.” Latin American Research Review, Vo. 39, No. 1 (2004), P. 171, 173
[vii] De la Fuente, Alejandro. “Recreating Racism: Race and Discrimination in Cuba’s Special Period.” A Contemporary Cuba Reader: Reinventing the Revolution. Ed. Philip Brenner, Marguerite Rose-Jiménez, John M. Kirk, William M. LeoGrande. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2008. P. 316.
[viii] Ibid. 317
[ix] Alvarado Ramos, Juan Antonio. “Relaciones Raciales en Cuba.” Cuba Transition Project, Institute for Cuban & Cuban-American Studies. University of Miami, 1996. P. 6
[x] Booth, David. “Cuba, Color and the Revolution.” Science & Society, Vol. 40, No. 2 (Summer 1976). P. 159.
[xi] Blue, 39
[xii] de la Fuente, Alejandro. “Race, National Discourse, and Politics in Cuba: An Overview.” Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 3, Race and National Identity in the Americas (May, 1998), P. 61.
[xiii] Blue, 40
[xiv] Ibid. 40
[xv] Huddleston, Vicki and Carlos Pascual. Learning to Salsa: New Steps in U.S.-Cuba Relations. Washington DC: Brooking Institute Press, 2010. P. 123
[xvi] De la Fuente 2008, 320
[xvii] Blue, 61
[xviii] Blue, 49
[xix] Castro, Fidel. Quoted in Godfried, Eugène. “Reflections on Race and The Status of People of African Descent in Revolutionary Cuba.” AfroCubaWeb. Nov. 2009
[xx] RAZA. Presented at the CIP Conference “Questions of Racial Identity, Racism and Anti-Racist Policies in Cuba Today.” Washington D.C., June 2, 2011
[xxii] de la Fuente, Alejandro. “The New Afro-Cuban Cultural Movement and the Debate on Race in Contemporary Cuba.” Journal of Latin American Studies, Vol. 40. Cambridge, 2008. P. 699
[xxiii] Hermanos de Causa. “Tengo.” La causa nostra. 2003. Trans. Alejandro de la Fuente.
[xxiv] Morales, Esteban. Panel presentation at the CIP Conference “Questions of Racial Identity, Racism and Anti-Racist Policies in Cuba Today.” Washington D.C., June 2, 2011
[xxv] Morales, Esteban. “The Challenges of the Issue of Race in Cuba.” Trans. Suzanna Collerd. Fernando Ortiz Foundation, 2007. P. 5