Wednesday, July 13, 2011

The Great Peruvian Guano Bonanza: Rise, Fall, and Legacy

 [i] A.J. Duffield Peru in the Guano Age; Being a Short Account of a Recent Visit to the Guano Deposits, with Some Reflections on the Money They Have Produced and the Uses to Which It Has Been Applied (London: R. Bentley and Son, 1877)

[ii] Ibid, 9
[iii] Simon Romero. "Peru Guards Its Guano as Demand Soars." The New York Times. 30 May 2008
[iv] Shane J. Hunt "Growth and Guano in Nineteenth Century Per." Research Program in Economic Development 34 (1973): 1-123, P. 5.
[v] Phillip Arestis and Peter Howells. "The 1520-1640 "Great Inflation": An Early Case of Controversy on the Nature of Money." Journal of Post Keynesian Economics Winter 24.2 (2001): 181-203, P. 199.
[vi] The History Files “American Colonies - Peru." 10 Dec. 2008.
[vii] V. Bulmer-Thomas. The Economic History of Latin America since Independence. (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge UP, 2003.) P. 19.
[viii] Catalina Vizcarra. "Guano, Credible Commitments, and State Finances in Nineteenth-Century Peru." (2006): 1-50. UCLA Center for Economic History. P. 7.
[ix] U.S. Country Studies, “Peru - THE GUANO ERA.”
[x] John P Olinger. "The Guano Age in Peru." History Today June 1980.
[xi] Juan C Calligros. "REINVENTING THE CITY OF THE KINGS: POSTCOLONIAL MODERNIZATIONS OF LIMA, 1845-1930." (2007) Diss. University of Florida, FCLA. P. 59.
[xii] Hunt
[xiii] Jean Piel. "The Place of The Peasantry In The National Life Of Peru In The Nineteenth Century." Past and Present 46.1 (1970): 108-33, P. 20.
[xiv] Stephen M Gorman. "The State, Elite, and Export in Nineteenth Century Peru: Toward an Alternative Reinterpretation of Political Change." Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 21.3 (1979): 395-418, P. 401.
[xv] Ibid, 396
[xvi] Ibid, 406
[xvii] Jesus Chavarria. "Crisis of Modern Peruvian Nationalism." Hispanic American Historical Review 50.2 (1970): 257-78, P. 259.
[xviii] Pete Lesher. "A Load of Guano: Baltimore and the Fertilizer Trade in." The Northern Mariner 18.3-4 (2008): 121-28, P. 125
[xix] Graciela L Kaminsky. "Two Hundred Years of Financial Integration:Latin America since Independence." George Washington and NBER (2009), P. 5.
[xx] Olinger
[xxi] Hunt, 42
[xxii] "Peru GDP Growth Rate." - Free Indicators for 231 Countries..
[xxiii] Rick Vecchio. "China Overtakes U.S. as Peru’s Top Destination for Exports in Jan-Feb." Peruvian Times Online English. Peruvian Times, 4 Apr. 2011.
[xxiv] Trading Economics
[xxv] “Peru's Non-traditional Exports Grew 38.4% in January." Andina. Agencia Peruana De Noticias, 13 Mar. 2011.
[xxvi] “Peru's Non-traditional Exports Jumped 27.6% to US$751mln. in April." Andina. Agencia Peruana De Noticias, 5 June 2011. .
[xxvii] "Poverty Decreases in Peru but Still Affects One Third of Population." Living in Peru : Peru News and Peru Travel. 19 May 2011.
[xxviii] Salazar Milagros. "PERU: Upbeat Poverty Stats Questioned - IPS" IPS Inter Press Service. 29 May 2008. .
[xxix] Romero

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